Thursday, March 16, 2017

Keeping an Eye on Justice Kennedy Continued


Taking “Judicial Notice”  
      
A few weeks ago, I wrote a blog post recommending that students keep their eye on Justice Anthony M. Kennedy in the ongoing legal battles over the Trump Administration’s travel ban.  Following the judicial invalidation of the initial Executive Order (Order No. 13769, issued January 27, 2017), upheld by a 3-0 ruling of the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, the Trump Administration opted to make revisions.  A revised version (No. 13780) was issued on March 6, 2017.  

On Wednesday, March 15, the revised ban was blocked by temporary restraining orders issued by the United States Federal District Courts in Hawaii and Maryland.  (A challenge by the State of Washington is still pending).  

Judge Derrick K. Watson, of the Federal District Court in Honolulu, found that procedural and other revisions did not remedy the central defects as previously identified by the courts.  In so ruling, the Federal Court took judicial notice of the public comments of Donald Trump, both as a presidential candidate and in his official capacity as President, as well as the commentary and explanations offered by White House staff and surrogates:

Because a reasonable, objective observer—enlightened by the specific historical context, contemporaneous public statements, and specific sequence of events leading to its issuance—would conclude that the Executive Order was issued with a purpose to disfavor a particular religion, in spite of its stated, religiously-neutral purpose, the Court finds that Plaintiffs, and Dr. Elshikh in particular, are likely to succeed on the merits of their Establishment Clause claim (CV. NO. 17-00050 DKW-KSC). 

U.S. Federal District Judge Derrick K. Watson
Photo Credit: Associated Press

In his immediate response to the decisions on his revised ban, President Trump has again vowed to appeal. Whatever the Circuit Courts decide, it seems likely that this time the matter will work its way all the way to the United States Supreme Court. 

What Will Kennedy Likely Notice?

The ruling by Judge Watson frames the legal issues in terms of religious (First Amendment) rights.  The federal government has already indicated a two-fold argument in response: 1) that the law is facially neutral and that the district court overstepped by inquiring into the law’s underlying motivations and 2) that the order is necessarily and legitimately related to the compelling purpose of protecting national security.

Although the Supreme Court has been generally deferential to executive claims of necessity that are based upon national security interests, as I pointed out in my previous blog post on this topic, Justice Kennedy has been particularly emphatic that national security need not and must not come at the cost of constitutional liberty. 

There are two other cases (one from 1992 and from just a few weeks ago) which potentially shed light on what might guide Kennedy’s consideration of the Trump Administration’s arguments in support of its travel ban.


U.S. Supreme Court Justice, Anthony M. Kennedy
Original photo credit: 
http://cdn.quotesgram.com/img/2/57/702418048-Getty_032712_JusticeAnthonyKennedy.jpg

Writing for the Court in, Church of Lukumi Babalu Aye v. Hialeah (508 U.S. 520) in 1992, Justice Kennedy invalidated a facially neutral ordinance prohibiting (ostensibly on public health grounds) the slaughtering of animals within city limits.  Kennedy rejected the claim of a facially neutral law, finding instead that the ordinance had been motivated by religious animus toward local practioners of the Santeria religion. The lack of neutrality, he found, could be determined from “both direct and circumstantial evidence”  including public and private commentary by local lawmakers in debating and discussing the ban. Kennedy’s opinion ruled that the law was neither neutral, nor generally applicable to all, nor sufficiently narrowly tailored to meet the  legitimate governmental concerns.  Kennedy stressed that the First Amendment “commits government itself to religious tolerance, and upon even slight suspicion that proposals…stem from animosity to religion or distrust of its practices, all officials must pause to remember their own high duty to the Constitution and the rights it secures.”

More recently, in a 5-3 ruling, Kennedy reiterated that racial bias has no legitimate place in the administration of justice.  His ruling in Pena-Rodriguez v. Colorado thus authorized the reconsideration of a jury verdict where it was subsequently revealed that a juror had made verbal statements in deliberations that reflected racial bias against the criminal defendant.  It was, Kennedy held, appropriate for a trial judges to consider such statements in retroactively determining whether the defendant’s Sixth Amendment right to a fair trial had been violated. Kennedy wrote:

The Nation must continue to make strides to overcome race-based discrimination. The progress that has already been made underlies the Court’s insistence that blatant racial prejudice is antithetical to the functioning of the jury system and must be confronted in egregious cases like this one despite the general bar of the no-impeachment rule. It is the mark of a maturing legal system that it seeks to understand and to implement the lessons of history.

Implementing the “Lessons of History”

So what are these lessons of history that mark the evolution of a “maturing legal system”? 

If (or when) the travel ban reaches the Supreme Court, it is not likely to escape judicial notice (Kennedy’s or others') that we recently observed the 75th anniversary of Korematsu v. United States (323 U.S. 214) in which the Supreme Court upheld President Franklin Roosevelt’s executive order interring Japanese Americans during World War II.  It is an unavoidable backdrop against which all claims of executive necessity are to be forever measured.  The 5-person majority in Korematsu did not question the executive branch’s motives nor did they challenge its determination that such sweeping measures were legitimately necessary.  As Justice Felix Frankfurter (in)famously noted in his concurrence, war powers and national security matters are constitutionally vested to the political branches and not to the courts. Korematus thus stands in the law books as a judicial validation of broad executive power in times of a national emergency or crisis.

But the insights of that ruling for the current justices (Kennedy perhaps included) may be drawn from the opinions of the dissenting justices who warned about animus and discrimination under the guise of facially neutral-justifications. Judicial validation of such claims, Justice Robert Jackson warned, are bound to become “a loaded weapon, ready for the hand of any authority that can bring forward a plausible claim of an urgent need. Every repetition imbeds that principle more deeply in our law and thinking and expands it to new purposes” (323 U.S. 214, Justice Robert Jackson, dissenting).

It is by no means a given that the conservative Kennedy will accept executive assertions of legitimate national security interests without inquiring into the alleged motivations behind the ban and without full and careful consideration of the competing religious claims raised in the state challenges.  

When Justice Kennedy “errs” in close cases, it is often on the side of libertyBecause the closely divided Court currently stands at 8 members (pending the confirmation of the late Justice Scalia’s replacement), whichever way the Supreme Court tends on the travel ban question, Kennedy’s views will be particularly critical to the outcome.  Kennedy’s romanticized conception of the judicial role, along with his willingness to consider evolving sensibilities, the maturation of the legal system and emergence of newly recognized rights, and a lower court ruling that seems perfectly pitched to Justice Kennedy’s ear – means there is much in the travel ban cases of which Kennedy can and likely will take careful notice himself. 

President Donald Trump displaying his signature on the travel
ban executive order.
Photo Credit: Associated Press 

PSC 305, American Constitutional Law is offered regularly in the Fall Semester. The course covers the evolution, scope, and relative powers of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches and the major constitutional doctrines of separated powers and federalism (federal versus state powers). We cover constitutional law as part of American political development and discuss contemporary constitutional controversies.  



Sunday, March 5, 2017

March is Women's History Month

Daemen marks its first decade of celebrating women's role in history

Image from the National Women's History Project  
http://www.nwhp.org/womens-history-month/womens-history-month-history/


Monday, February 27
4:30-6:30pm, Alumni Lounge, Wick Center
Chisholm '72: Unbought and Unbossed
    This 2005 documentary focuses upon Shirley Chisholm's 1972 Presidential campaign. Chisholm was the first black woman elected to Congress and a catalyst for change. Her 1972 presidential campaign confronted racism, sexism, poverty, and war.
Sponsored by the Women’s Studies Program for Women's History Month and Black History Month



Tuesday, March 7
6:45-8:45pm, RIC120
CLAW: The Collective of Lady Arm Wrestlers
Film and discussion by Dr. Shannon Lupien
    The Collective of Lady Arm Wrestlers (CLAW) is a national not-for-profit alliance of theatrical lady arm wrestlers that seeks to empower women and strengthen local communities through theatrics, arm wrestling, and philanthropy. This documentary details the beginning of the lady arm wrestling movement and its spread to over 25 cities throughout the US and internationally.
     After the film, Dr. Shannon Lupien (Assistant Professor of Psychology and 3-time arm-wrestling champion) will discuss her experience as a wrestler and its role in empowering women.
Sponsored by the Department of Psychology & Women's Studies Program
Light refreshments provided


Monday, March 20
11:15am-12:20pm, Duns Scotus 26
Straight Science, or: Sexing the Romance of Egg and Sperm
    Scientists are still struggling to find evidence of "homosexuality" in the human body, and heterosexuality appears to be the biological default. Where did this assumption come from, and what does it do to how we do science? Where does hetero-romance creep into our scientific observations? And what does this kind of "straight" thinking do to "other" bodies and our experiences?
Open classroom session for PHI/REL/WST 336: Sex, Love, and God 
Sponsored by Dr. Heike Peckruhn, Assistant Professor of Religious Studies


Monday, March 20
7:30pm, Alumni Lounge, Wick Center
What Happened to Miss Simone?
     This 2015 biographical documentary explores the life and career of America’s legendary singer, pianist, and civil rights activist Nina Simone. Known as the “high priestess of soul,” Simone left the US for Liberia at the height of her fame. 
Part of the Daemen Film Series
Dr. Shawn Kelley, Professor of Religious Studies, will lead a discussion after the film


Tuesday, March 21
6:30-8:30pm, RIC120
Unsung Heroes: Women in the Military
     Why do women choose to join the military and what contributions have they made to our nation’s defense? A panel of local female veterans will address these questions and more as they share their stories of military life and discuss the challenges and rewards of life in the military and issues related to adjusting to civilian life. Veterans on the panel will also answer questions from the audience and respond to issues raised by the documentary film, Unsung Heroes.
     Panelists include Lynn Magistrale; Jennifer Wiese, LMSW; Laureen Barone; and Nerfis Elminowski, ANP-BC, DNP
Co-sponsored by the Nancy Habermann Gacioch Veterans Center, Sigma Omega Chi Sorority, and the Student Veterans Alliance. More information at 839-7218 
Light refreshments provided



Wednesday, March 22
7:30pm, 3rd Floor Lounge, Research & Information Commons 
Readings at the RIC
Ansie Baird and Ann Goldsmith are this month's featured poets for Buffalo's well-respected ongoing poetry reading series.Readings in the RIC, whose participants meet on Daemen's campus every month (3rd floor of RIC). Sign up for the Open Reading at the start of the event to share your own poetry.
Co-sponsored by the RIC and the Daemen College Honors Program. 
Contact Dr. Peter Siedlecki for more details: psiedlec@daemen.edu 
Light refreshments provided



Thursday, March 23
5:30-7:00pm Rosary Hall
Gender & Careers Panel Discussion/ Mixer
How are women’s opportunities and career paths shaped by gender? Join a diverse group of Daemen College & Rosary Hill College Alumni to discuss how gender has shaped their careers—followed by a mixer between panelists and students in attendance. Panelists include alumni from different departments and graduation years.
** The S.O.S. Scholarship for Women’s Activism and Leadership will be awarded at this event. 
Co-sponsored by the Rosary Hill-Daemen College Alumni Association, AAUW Student Organization, the Daemen Eaglettes, and the Women’s Studies Program.
Hearty refreshments included 


Tuesday, March 28
6:30-8:30pm, Wick Social Room
Dr. Farida Jalalzai, “The Global Dimensions of Women’s Executive Leadership”
     What trends and conditions make it possible for women to rise to presidential and prime ministerial posts worldwide? Why does women’s leadership matter for democracy? Dr. Farida Jalalzai will address these questions in this lecture that explores the role of gender in the political arena and the patterns of women’s leadership worldwide.
     Dr. Farida Jalalzai, the Hannah Atkins Endowed Chair and Associate Professor of Political Science at Oklahoma State University, has published extensively on topics related to the representation and behavior of women and minorities in politics and the role of gender in the political arena. Her publications include Shattered, Cracked and Firmly Intact: Women and the Executive Glass Ceiling Worldwide (Oxford University Press), and Women Presidents of Latin America: Beyond Family Ties? (Routledge 2016).
Sponsored by History & Politics Event series (History  Political Science Department), Women’s Studies Program, Department of Modern Languages, & Global Programs Office



**COMING ATTRACTIONS (April)**

Wednesday, April 17, 2017
Time/location TBA (see Academic Festival Schedule)
Acknowledgement of World Hijab Day
     The hijab is a type of religious covering worn by many Muslim women across the world. Have you ever wondered what it really means to wear a hijab? Or how to put one on? Or what you'd look like covered? Join Daemen's American Association of University Women (AAUW) as we explore the answers to these questions.


Date/Time/Location TBA:
Start Smart! Salary Negotiation Workshop
     Members of the American Association of University Women (AUW) Student Organization are planning to hold a Start Smart salary negotiation workshop in collaboration with members of the Buffalo Chapter of the AAUW in April!
     Join us to learn how to research salaries and negotiate for the starting salary you deserve in this interactive workshop led by trained AAUW facilitators.
Contact Dr. Penny Messinger for more details (pmessing@daemen.edu)



** All events are free and open to the public**

** For more information about these events, contact Dr. Penny Messinger Women’s Studies Program Director, at pmessing@daemen.edu **

Women's March on Seneca Falls, overlooking the National Women's Rights Museum, 1-21-2017. Photo by Brianna Zichettella